Traditionally assigned to Bharata, a legendary sage, Natya Shastra is one among the famous trio of India, the other two being Kautalya’s Artha. Natya was then taught by God Brahma to the mythic sage Bharata, who is said to have recorded this teaching in the Natyashastra. The origin of the book is thus. The Nātya Shastra (Nātyaśāstra नाट्य शास्त्र) of Bharata is the It is attributed to the muni (sage) Bharata and is believed to have been.

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It also deals with the rasas and bhavas that may be evoked by music. Accessory feelings, such as hope, doubt, jealousy, longing etc.

The chapters 14 to 20 are dedicated to plot and structure of underlying text behind the performance art. In fact, the process of creating the rasa sentiment is more complicated.

Natya Shastra

By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Two versions of the text, one running to 37 chapters and the other containing 36 chapters, are available. Chronology of Hindu texts.

For an actor who is not yet perfect, the techniques described in the Natyashastraare a means to achieve perfection, enlightenment, moksha, and run parallel to reaching this state through yoga or meditation practices. When is a play successful? This article needs additional citations for verification. A large section deals with how the meanings conveyed by the performance bhavas can be particularly emphasized, leading to a broad theory of aesthetics rasas.

Love the hero and hate the villain. The answer to this question comprises the rest of the book.

There are rules in handling the musical instruments, leave alone playing on them. Musical instrument types mentioned in the Natyashastra string, flute, drums and cymbals.

A detailed treatment of Sanskrit prosody makes the work interesting to poets and writers. All the three works speak of the glory of India mui proclaim to the world that Indian education did not stop with the scriptures and the philosophies.


The Natyashastra defines drama in verse 6. The text discusses the universal and inner principles of drama, that it asserts successfully affects and journeys the audience to a supersensual state of discovery and understanding.

Wilfrid Laurier University Press. The analysis of body forms and movements also influenced sculpture and the other arts in subsequent centuries. In some tradition the actor wears standard make-up and a standard costume regardless of what role he or she is acting, while in some traditions there are clear role types with their characteristic costumes, make-up or masks.

But this they should do with no intention of disturbing the play. Credit is due under the terms of this license that can reference both the New World Encyclopedia contributors and the selfless volunteer contributors of the Wikimedia Foundation. Dance was an integral part of stylised acting, while later it also became an independent form of art, as described in several post- Natyashastra treatises.

The Natyashastra is the oldest surviving ancient Indian work on performance arts. The whole complicated process of conveying the rasa through the natya technique is crystallised in the famous dictum:. The eight basic bhavas emotions are: Bollywood song and dance Hindi dance songs Nautch. By using this site, you agree to juni Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. The Vedic sacrifice yajna is presented as a kind of drama, with its actors, its dialogues, its portion to be set to music, nata interludes, and its climaxes.

The more was the work revered and obeyed, the quicker was it lost.

Natyashastra | Indian drama treatise |

The spectator’s concentrated absorption and appreciation is success. These rising and falling supporting emotions are called vyabhicaribhavas and they are 37 in number.

There is no scenery in Indian dance, although there….

History of “Natya Shastra” Note: The compilation of this treatise dates back most probably to the second century AD, although the tradition formulated in it was older. Its many chapters contain detailed treatments of all the diverse arts that are embodied in the classical Natga concept of the dramaincluding dance, music, poetics, and mini aesthetics. Asia Sanskrit literature In India: Influenced by European theatres, our Indian theatres too are changing.


It is believed to have been written by the mythic Brahman sage and priest Bharata 1st century bce —3rd century ce.

Natya Shastra – New World Encyclopedia

The rasa theory has been discussed above shsatra in simplified outlines. The most studied version of the text, consisting of about poetic verses, is structured into 36 chapters. The Natyashastra clearly indicates that there were already several styles of theatre as well as different acting techniques during the time of its compilation. He recommends competitions to be organised and suggests that only qualified and sympathetic judges to participate.

The text goes into bharzt to explain the means available within dramatic arts to achieve its goals. These physical actions are called anubhavas.

Her Voice, Her Faith: It has been argued that the text predates several sections of the Ramayanasince the music terminology used in them by Valmiki follows Bharata’s outlines. The composition of Dharma-shastras collections of treatises on sacred dutiesamong which the most often quoted muji ascribed to Manu, became important matya a period of social flux in which traditional social law and usage were….

He meticulously describes the art of such expressions in stylised tones and gestures suiting the status of the character. Retrieved from ” https: Humanism and the Humanities in the Twenty-first Century. The music theory in the Natyashastrastates Maurice Winternitz, centers around three themes — sound, rhythm and prosody applied to musical texts.

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